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Immunohistochemistry (IHC)

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Acid Fast for visualizing:

·          Mycobacterium species

·         Cryptosporidiosis Detection

·         Detects oocytes in cryptosporidiosis.


Staining Results:

·         Mycobacterium stain red,

·         nuclei and other tissue elements stain blue.

·          Cryptosporidiosis, cysts appear as reddish masses.

Massons trichrome.PNG

Massions Trichrome

Masson's Trichrome stain

·         Differentiate &visualize various types of connective tissues

Staining Results:

·         Collagen stains                       Blue

·         Nuclei stains                            Black

·         Muscle, cytoplasm & keratin stains Red



Alcian Blue for visualizing

·          Acid mucosubstances, Acidic     mucins (lower PH).

·          Familiar to identify:  Mesothelioma, atherosclerosis and   


Staining Results:

·          Nuclei Stains pink – red,

·          Cytoplasm stains pink

·          Sulfated Acidic Mucosubstances stains Blue.



Pas Alcian Blue Stain

•       Used for colon tissues that leads to Colorectal Carcinoma

•       Distinguishes neutral mucins from acidic mucins .

Staining Results:

•       Acidic mucins stains Blue

•        Neutral mucins stains Magenta .

•       Nuclei stains Deep blue.

Congo Red.PNG

Modified high Ph Congo red

Modified pH Congo red (Thioflavin T (CR-TT) stain) for visualizing

  •  Amyloid Deposits: Atypical proteinaceous deposits in organs like liver, kidneys, spleen, etc.

  • Staining Results:       

  •  Amyloid, Elastic Tissue, Eosinophil Granules: Red;

  • ·Nuclei: Blue.

Green Backdrop

Alcian Blue Hematoxylin/ Orange G Stain

Alcian Blue Hematoxylin/ Orange G Stain

•       Discriminates the Mature bone, Immature bone & cartilages in Osteoarthritis (OA)

Staining Results:

•       Activated osteocytes stains Bright blue

•       Cartilage stains blue/Purple

•        Bone stains orange-red.

Alizarin Red
  •  calcium deposits in a tissue

  •  Characterizes the enlargement of bone Osteoporosis.

  • Calcium deposits stains Orange – Red.

Gram Stain

  • Visualize bacterial infection in  throat, lungs, genitals, or in skin wounds.

  • As gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria have different susceptibilities to different antibiotics.

Bielschowskys Silver Stain

  • It imparts both the amyloid and neurotic components.

  • Detection of Alzheimer's diseases

Gomori’s Blue Trichome

  • Used in musculoskeletal &skin disorders that affects connective tissue (scleroderma).

  • Increase in collagen fibers in the connective tissue or to differentiate collagen and smooth muscle fibers.

Giemsa Stain:

  • Detect parasites such as malaria and Treponema palladium in blood smears, and gastrointestinal biopsies.

  • The Giemsa stain was unique due its staining of chromatin, nuclear membranes, and cytoplasmic elements.

Gomoris Green Trichome

  • Detects the increase in collagen fibres in tissues and identifies muscle fibres, nuclei.

  •  Used in the diagnosis of various Musculoskeletal Disorders

  • Muscle fibers stains Red, Collagen fibers stains Green, nuclei stainsBlue.

Grocott’s Methenamine Silver

  • The identification of fungi on cytosmears and tissue sections.

  • It imparts black to fungal specimens and background pale green (counter stain).

Malachite Green Stain

  • Detects Cryptosporidium oocytes in fecal and environmental samples.

  • It imparts Cryptosporidia as bright red and background blue green.

Oil Red O Stain

  • To visualize neutral lipids, in adipocytes or fat cells.

Pas (Periodic And Schiff) Stain

  • Detect glycogen deposits in liver

  • Glycogen, Mucin and Some Basement membranes imparts Red/Purple& counterstains appears green / blue.

Pas Diastase Stain:

  • PAS stain in combination with diastase, which is an enzyme that digests the glycogen.

  •  It promotes digestion in cases of chronic illness, stomach fullness, flatulence, and indigestion.

  • Glycogen is digested not stained other cells  imparts magneta


Prussian Blue Stain

  •  Used in the detection of ferric iron in tissues,

  • Iron (ferric form) imparts Bright Blue, nuclei imparts red, and cytoplasm imparts pink...

Verhoeff’s Elastic Stain

  • Detects abnormal patterns of elastic fibers as found in blood vessel walls, elastic cartilage, lungs, skin, bladder, and some ligaments.

  • Elastic fibres imparts Blue-Black over yellow background.

Von Kossa Stain

  • Detects adequate calcium deposits in different tissues (joints, blood vessels and kidneys are most often affected).

  • Tissues are impregnated with silver to reduce calcium.

  • Calcium imparts black, nuclei and cytoplasm appears red, pink.

Mucicarmine Stain

  • Detection of mucins of epithelial origin,including tumors, cysts, and infections.

  • Useful in detecting adenocarcinomas originating from the gastrointestinal tract.

  • Mucins appears as Magenta whereas Nucleiappears as blue.

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